Fans have been trying to figure out how a Saiyan goes Super Saiyan in Dragon Ball for years, and the latest inclusions to the equation in Dragon Ball Super have only made the concept of power levels more complicated.
But with the addition of "S-Cells" to the franchise, this confusing matter could be solved yet. At the very least, one fan has put together a chart essentially balances the series' power level equations.
In a Q&A published in the latest volume of the Dragon Ball Super manga, series creator Akira Toriyama explained how exactly a Saiyan is able to go Super Saiyan. According to him, in order to become a Super Saiyan, some one would need to have enough "S-Cells." This chart of equations from Twitter user @KenXyro has taken this and every other triggering factor and laid out how each character had possibly become Super Saiyan:
Super Saiyan Math pic.twitter.com/kFXS4XLLcy— Santa Ken (@KenXyro) November 30, 2017
This theory posits, for example, that Super Saiyan Goku is a result of a "good amount" of S-Cells added to a good power level, and was triggered by anger at Krillin's death. This would align with what Toriyama had said about Goku becoming the first Super Saiyan.
In that same, Q&A Toriyama stated, "Once these S-Cells reach a certain amount, a trigger such as anger will explosively increase the S-Cells and cause a change in the body: that's Super Saiyan...However, one can't reach the quantity necessary for becoming a Super Saiyan simply by having a gentle spirit, so a certain amount of battle power is indeed necessary. Looked at in this light, it's easy to see why becoming Super Saiyan came easy for Goku."
The theory then posits that the Universe 6 characters Cabba, Caulifla, and Kale reached their Super Saiyan levels due to a mix of gentle hearts, an average power level, mixed with the aforementioned S-Cells. But the difference here is what the environment of Planet Sadala possibly contributes to their evolution. The idea of an environment having an effect on Super Saiyan power would not be impossible given that a lot of Super Saiyan transformations in Dragon Ball have taken place outside of the Earth's environment.
In fact, Saiyans themselves are a conquering race that traveled to multiple to gain strength for their empire and for their warrior spirit.
Dragon Ball Super's “Universal Survival” arc is part of the recent simulcast agreement that sites like Crunchyroll and Funimation have scored. Dragon Ball Super airs on Crunchyroll Saturday evenings at 7:15 p.m. CST. Adult Swim airs the English dub during its Toonami block Saturday evenings at 9:30 p.m, and it will soon be available to stream on FunimationNOW.
Does this math make Super Saiyan power levels any easier to understand? Talk to me @Valdezology.